BIOL& 242: Human Anatomy and Physiology II

Class Program
Degree Code
Lab Science
Credits 5 Lecture Hours 33 Lab Hours 44

The second quarter of a two-quarter sequence which includes the structure, function and pathology of the endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems. Emphasis will be given to the homeostatic relationships between systems. Four hours of lab per week will be devoted to exploring these systems. Lab participation is required for credit.


A minimum grade of 2.0 in BIOL& 241 or equivalent.

Quarters Offered
Course Outcomes

Upon successful completion of the course, students should be able to demonstrate the following knowledge or skills:

  1. Describe and explain the form, function and interrelationships of the body systems and the major diseases and disorders of each. Relate form to function. Focus on endocrine system.
  2. Explain the mechanics of cell chemistry and metabolic processes in detail; relate variations to disease processes and conditions.
  3. Locate and identify all major anatomical components of the cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems in human models.
  4. Demonstrate an understanding of the physiology of the above systems including both the chemical and neurological control mechanisms for each, drawing heavily from principles learned in 241.
  5. Explain the pathology of the selected disorders of each system.
Course Content Outline
  1. Endocrine Regulation
    Endocrine glands: location, structure, functions and secretions
    Relationship of the hypothalamus to both lobes of the pituitary gland and the portal system
    Endocrine pathology: receptor malfunctions, hyposecretion and hypersecretion
  2. The Heart: Anatomy
    External and internal anatomical features of the heart and the pericardial sac including valves, layers of the heart wall, and vestigial structures from fetal development.
  3. Cardiac Physiology
    Names and functions of each structure involved in the generation and conduction of the electrical impulse of contraction; molecular mechanism of self-exciting impulse generation in the sinoatrial node and in myocardial tissue.
    Characteristics of cardiac muscle
    Pathway of blood through the heart; Valve function and heart sounds
    Neural and hormonal control mechanisms for both heart rate and stroke volume; cardiac output
    Major diseases or heart conditions
  4. Circulation: Blood Vessels, Circulatory Patterns, Disorders
    Normal vessel structure and patterns with normal and abnormal variation
    Blood pressure: neural and hormonal mechanisms of homeostatic control
    Pathophysiology of vessels
  5. Blood: Composition, Functions, Dyscrasias
    Cells and major proteins
    Analysis of lab results with respect to bacterial and viral diseases
  6. The Lymphatic System
    Structure and functions of all organs and components of lymphoid tissue
    Flow of lymph from formation to its return to the venous system
  7. The Respiratory System; Control and Pathology
    Structure and functions of all respiratory; breathing mechanics
    Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve
    Regulation of respiration and its relation to blood chemistry and pressure
    Roles of respiratory system and kidney in blood pH regulation
    Causes, compensations, and lab results associated with respiratory acidosis and alkalosis
    Major obstructive and restrictive pulmonary diseases
  8. Digestive Anatomy, Physiology and Disorders
    Structure and function of all organs and accessory structures of the digestive tract
    Homeostatic control of motility and secretion
    Chemical basis of digestion, major secretions and actions
    Structure and function of the liver; hepatic portal system
  9. Cellular Respiration and Metabolism
    Composition and function of various buffer systems in health, acidosis, and alkalosis
    Cellular respiration and fermentation
    Carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism in health and disease; gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis and lipogenesis
  10. The Urinary System:
    Structure and functions of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
    Function of each segment of the nephron in terms of filtration, reabsorption and secretion
    Roles of ADH and aldosterone in the control of reabsorption
    Regulation of blood pH and red blood cell production
    Regulation of blood pressure: angiotensin pathway
  11. The Reproductive System:
    Structure and function of male and female reproductive systems
    Hormones of reproduction; the Endometrial
    Endometrial cycle; menstruation and fertilization

Lab Topics: (in person and/or digital using the Visible Body program, a synthetic cadaver, muscle models, tissue slides and/or skeletons)

  1. The Heart
    External and internal features of the heart: beef hearts and models, pathogenesis
    Myocardial infarctions; angiography, angioplasty, and CABG surgery
  2. The Circulatory System
    Major arteries and veins: models
    Fetal blood flow, changes at birth
  3. Cardiovascular Response and Compensation
    Experiments cardiovascular effects of exercise and standing
  4. The Respiratory System
    Measurement of pulmonary volumes
    Major components of the respiratory system: models
    Respiratory pathology
  5. The Digestive System
    Digestive structures: models
    Digestive pathology
  6. The Urinary System
    Dissection of injected sheep kidneys
    Nephron and urinary system structures: models
    Urinary system pathology
    Computer simulations of kidney function
  7. Male and Female Reproductive Systems
    Reproductive structures: models
Department Guidelines
  • The overall course percentage will be based on the following weighted categories:
    • Lecture exams (including 2-4 tests plus a comprehensive final exam) collectively worth 45-50%,
    • Laboratory work collectively worth 40%, and
    • Class assignments/quizzes collectively worth 10-15% of the overall score.
  • A standard grade scale will be used for this course with a 2.0 grade point corresponding to 72%.
  • All exams are proctored. When possible, exams are held on campus. Online and hybrid courses may have exams online, but they must be proctored to ensure academic honesty.
  • Lab is an essential part of this class and is required for credit. Students missing more than two labs will not be given credit for this course.
  • PO5 should be assessed: Students will be able to solve problems by gathering, interpreting, combining and/or applying information from multiple sources.