BIOL& 222: Majors Cell/Molecular

Class Program
Degree Code
Lab Science
Credits 5 Lecture Hours 38 Lab Hours 33

The second quarter in a three-quarter general biology series, this series is designed for life-science majors, for pre-professional students, and for students intending to take advanced courses in the biological sciences. Topics of study include: cell chemistry and biological molecules, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, membrane transport, energetics and cell metabolism, cell communication, DNA replication, gene expression, and gene regulation, cell division, genetics, and developmental genetics. Related investigations take place in a three-hour lab period each week. NOTE: This majors’ biology sequence may be taken in the following order: BIOL& 222,223, and 221, with instructor’s permission.


Successful completion of BIOL& 221 with a 2.0 or better and successful completion of either CHEM& 121 or CHEM& 161 with a 2.0 or better, or instructor’s permission

Quarters Offered
Course Outcomes

Upon successful completion of the course, students should be able to demonstrate the following knowledge or skills:

  1. Apply the scientific method to hypothetical biological problems; design valid experiments.
  2. Explain and evaluate how atoms combine into molecules; analyze the chemical nature of water and determine how water enables life; apply pH and buffer systems to life.
  3. Describe and explain the structure, functions, and characteristics of molecules found in living organisms.
  4. Compare and contrast the structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; state the structure and function of all eukaryotic cell structures and organelles.
  5. Evaluate the structure of cell membranes, analyzing the placement and role of each component; predict and explain the mechanisms that move substances across membranes.
  6. Explain energy use, transport, and production within cells, including free energy, the ATP/ADP cycle, and enzyme function.
  7. Demonstrate knowledge of metabolism by explaining the step-by-step events of all parts of cellular respiration and identifying redox reactions, phosphorylations, and regulatory parameters; describe and evaluate anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
  8. Classify and explain the types of cellular receptors and their activation, signal transduction, and cellular response, applying these concepts within given examples.
  9. Describe and evaluate external cell structures and cell junctions; identify and describe the different types of animal and plant tissues.
  10. Demonstrate knowledge of the functioning of genetic material by explaining the detailed processes of DNA replication, protein synthesis, and gene regulation.
  11. State the distinguishing events within the eukaryotic cell cycle and its regulation; categorize all events within both mitosis and meiosis and compare and contrast them.
  12. Explain the principles of Mendelian genetics and complex patterns of inheritance; predict outcomes of genetic crosses.
  13. Describe the genetic properties of viruses and bacteria; explain viral reproductive cycles and methods of bacterial gene transfer.
  14. Discuss and explain developmental genetics including pattern formation, positional information, and morphogens, as well as the genes that affect development in animals and in plants (as time permits)
  15. Apply content knowledge in lab exercises of microscopes, pH/buffers/macromolecules, cells/diffusion/ osmosis, enzymes, cellular respiration, animal tissues, DNA /gel electrophoresis, mitosis/meiosis, crossing over/independent assortment/segregation.
Institutional Outcomes
IO3 Human Relations/Workplace Skills: Students will be able to demonstrate teamwork, ethics, appropriate safety awareness and/or workplace specific skills.
Course Content Outline
  1. Chemistry
    Chemical Bonding, Water, pH, and Buffers
    Formation, Structure, and Function of Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
  2. Cells
    General Features of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
    Membrane Structure, Synthesis and Transport
    Energy, Enzymes, and Metabolism
    Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
    Cell Communication
  3. Genetics
    Nucleic Acid Structure, DNA Replication, and Chromosome Structure
    Gene Expression at the Molecular Level
    Gene Regulation
    Mutation, DNA Repair, and Cancer
    The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle, Mitosis, and Meiosis
    Simple Patterns of Inheritance
    Complex Patterns of Inheritance
    Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria
    Developmental Genetics
Department Guidelines
  • The overall course percentage will be based on the following weighted categories:
    • Lecture exams (including 2-4 tests plus a comprehensive final exam) collectively worth 60%,
    • Laboratory work collectively worth 25-30%, and
    • Class assignments/quizzes collectively worth 10-15% of the overall score.
  • A standard grade scale will be used for this course with a 2.0 grade point corresponding to 70-72%.
  • All exams are proctored. When possible, exams are held on campus. Online and hybrid courses may have exams online, but they must be proctored to ensure academic honesty.
  • Lab is an essential part of this class and is required for credit. Students missing more than two labs will not be given credit for this course.
  • PO5 should be assessed: Students will be able to solve problems by gathering, interpreting, combining and/or applying information from multiple sources.